Understanding Encoding (Beginner’s guide)

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From Wikipedia

This article will describe the different type of process involves in encoding of data.

The term encoded data means wrapped data and the process of encoding is used to transform the data into a different format so that it can be easily understood by different type of system. For example ASCII characters are encoded by means of numbers ‘A’ is represented with 65, where as ‘B’ with 66 an so on.

As we known computer does not understand human languages therefore we need to encode the data into binary language which is easily readable by computer systems hence encoding is very important. It utilises such schemes that are widely available so that it can simply be reversed. Encoding means data transformation, not data encryption consequently it does not need a key in decoding.

URL Encoded

The internet only accepts URL’s in ASCII format, URL encoding entails encoding certain parts of the URL character set. This process takes one character and converts it into a character triplet that has a prefix of “%” followed by two digits in hexadecimal format. 

CharacterEncoded
:%3A
/%2F
#%23
?%3F
&%24
@%40
%%25
+%2B
%20
;%3B
=%3D
$%26
,%2C
<  %3C
%3E
^%5E
`%60
%5C
[%5B
]%5D
%7B
%7D
|%7C
%22

Example :

Original URL: http://www.hackingarticles.in

Encoded URL: http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hackingarticles.in

 Hexadecimal

Hexadecimal or Base 16 is a positional number system which consists of 16 distinct symbols which range from 0 to 9 in numerals and both upper and lowercase alphabets which range from A to F which represent numeric values 10 to 15

Step 1 – is to get the decimal value of an alphabet, this is different for both upper and lower case, eg: A = 65 and a = 97. In order to find the value of any alphabet, we count down to it from ”A” or “a”, the values are in single digit succession, eg: A = 65 B = 66 C = 67 and so on / a = 97 b = 98 c = 99 and so on.

Step 2 – To convert from decimal to hexadecimal, take the decimal value and divide it by 16, the hex value will be written beginning from the quotient all the way up to the remainder. So, the hex value of 97 will be 61.

Eg:

Source Raj
Decimal Value8297106
Hexadecimal value52616a

 Base64

Each base64 digit represents exactly 6 bits of data.Is a radix-64 representation of ASCII string, here’s how we get it?

 Step 1 – is to get the decimal value of an alphabet, this is different for both upper and lower case, eg: A = 65 and a = 97. In order to find the value of any alphabet, we count down to it from”A” or “a”, the values are in single digit succession, eg: A = 65 B = 66 C = 67 and so on / a = 97 b = 98 c = 99 and so on.

Step 2 – is to divide the decimal value by 2, where ever there is a reminder it is denoted as “1” and where ever the remainder is “0”, it is denoted as “0”, continue to divide till you reach 0 or 1 and cannot divide any further. The binary value will be the denoted 1’s and 0’s counted from last to first.

Eg:In order to get a 8-bit value we prefix a “0” to the value, eg: 01010010 and this gives us the binary value of “a”.

2971
248
224
212
26
231
 11

Step 3 – Write the values of all the characters in binary and make pairs of 6 (6-bit), eg: binary value of “Raj” in 8-bit = 010100 100110 000101, binary value of “Raj” in 6-bit = 010100 100110 000101 101010.

Step 4 – Write the 6-bit decimal value of the pairs we make in Step 3 and adding all the values where we have 1’s

32168421
1120
11138
115
11142

Step 5 – Use the Base64 table to lookup the values we get in Step 4.

The Base64 index table:

ValueCharValueCharValueCharValueChar
A16Q32g48w
1B17R33h49x
2C18S34i50y
3D19T35j51z
4E20U36k52
5F21V37l531
6G22W38m542
7H23X39n553
8I24Y40o564
9J25Z41p575
10K26a42q586
11L27b43r597
12M28c44s608
13N29d45t619
14O30e46u62+
15P31f47v63/

 The Base64 encoded value of Raj is UmFq. Encoded in ASCII, the characters R, a, and j are stored as decimal values 82, 97, and 106, their 8-bit binary values are 01010010, 01100001, and 01101010. These three values are joined together into a 24-bit string, producing 010100100110000101101010. Groups of 6 are converted into individual numbers from left to right. While converting from 8-bit to 6-bit, 0’s are added to fill the last slots, so that a full pair of 6 can be made.

The full conversion of “Raj” to Base64 is shown in Table 1.1 and the individual conversion of “R” and “Ra” of “Raj” are shown in Tables 1.1 and 1.2 to show a breakdown of the process with explanation

Raj                                               82 97 106                             01010010 01100001 01101010


In the Table 1.2, for character “R” of “Raj”, the values in the Bit patternsection are in 8-Bit format and they are being converted into 6-Bit and the decimal value of the 6-Bit pairs are in the Index section.Table 1.1

The same process is repeated in Table 1.3 for characters “R” and “a” of “Raj”.

For each pair of extra 0’s that are added to complete a pair of 6, an “=” is added for each pair, so the ACHII value of “0 0” is “=”.

In table 1.4 to further build on the logic used in table 1.2 and 1.3, “Raaj” is converted to “UmFhag==” in Base64, with the addition of an additional “a”, the complexity of the conversion increases. In the Indexsection we can see an additon of 33, 26 and 32 due to the change in the bit pattern. 

For each pair of extra 0’s that are added to complete a pair of 6, an “=” is added for each pair, so the ACHII value of “0 0” is “=”, as done in table 1.2 and 1.3.

Rot13

This is a letter substitution cypher, it’s conversion process from plain text to cypher test is dicinging the total number of alphabets in half: A to M and N to Z. The first half mirriors the second half and vice versa. So, A = N and N = A.

Eg: Rot13 of Raj = Enw

ABCDEFGHIJKLM
NOPQRSTUVWXYZ

 
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